How Cataphore works?

  1. Results with and without Cataphore
  2. Report on viscosity in shear
  3. Report on Cataphore reduction of interfacial tension
  4. Report on atomization
  5. Report on anti-screen clogging
  6. Report on Cataphore demulsifying effects




Results with and without CATAPHORE


Combustible (FUEL OIL WITH CATAPHORE) Unit Results without Cataphore Results with Cataphore ASTM Analytical Method
Cinematic Viscosity at 50 C SF 235 227 D-445
Water % Vol 0.15 0.05 D-95
Asphaltene Weight % 10.0 4.2  
Deposit Weight % 0.05 0.02 D-473

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Report on viscosity in shear


Object

This study was performed to investigate the influence of an additive designated CATAPHORE on the viscosity of crude oil (bunker) under moderatly high shear rates and temperature.

Materials

CATAPHORE: Supplied by requestee and used as such.
#6 BUNKER OIL : Supplied by requestee.

Methods

The bunker viscosities were measured using a standard FANN viscometer (rotating inside cylinder, measuring torque on outside cylinder). The apparatus was standardized as described by the manufacturer and tested by measuring the viscosity of ethylene glycol at 25C; the value found was 20 centi poise, comparing favorably with 19.0 c.p. litterature value at 20C. Because of the lack of accurate reference liquids at high viscosity (e.g. near 300 c.p. the results given below are precise on a relative basis only. The temperature of the oil was maintained at 67C 0.2C throughout the experiments by means of a water jacket and a circulating thermostat.

Results

The torgue angle readings () were converted into corresponding viscosities using the relationship:

n = s x x f x c

where s is a speed factor, f, the torsion spring factor and c is a rotorbob constant dependent on the diameters of the outside and inside cylinders. The viscosity of #6 Bunker oil at 67C under shear rate of l9 cm/sec ( 100 rpm) was determined as 230 c.p. and taken as reference (unit value). All other viscosities are reported relative to the latter in table 1

Table 1. Relative Newtonian Viscosities (n) of # 6 Bunker Oil at 67C and in the presence of CATAPHORE.

RPM shear
rate
cm/sec
Bunker #6 # 6 Bunker with CATAPHORE
Con.: CAT. nrel Con.: CAT. nrel
100 19 1.00* 0.02% 0.95 0.2% 0.90
200 38 0.99 0.02% 0.95 0.2% 0.91
300 57 0.97 0.02% 0.95 0.2% 0.92

* Newtonian viscosity of #6 Bunker measured as 230 cp; all other values given relative to the latter

Estimated uncertainties on nrel : 0.02

Conclusions

The addition of low levels of CATAPHORE produces measurable reduction of bunker oil viscosities under all conditions tested here and the effect if larger than the dilution effect of the solvant in the CATAPHORE additive.

Carmel Jolicoeur
Chimiste

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Report on atomization
(U.S. Bureau of Mining 5113)

Report on the Atomization of light and heavy fuels in the combustion chamber test on numbers or droplets in systems before and after treatment of fuel with Ivesco's (Cataphore)

1. Introduction

We received a sample of app. 100 cm in a sealed plastic bottle labeled Ivesco's (Cataphore). We received two sealed containers 5 liters each:

  • Light fuel 200 sec/Redwood 1
  • Heavy fuel 1500 sec/Redwood 1
2. Equipment Used

A Sunstrand Fuel burner pump was connected to a container with heat control and pressure gauge and a S 150/3/15/18 injection valve. The atomized stream of oil droplets was led through a timing apparatus 1/60 to 1/1000 sec to a screen. According to the findings issued in the US Bureau of mining 5113 test, the number of droplets reaching the screen for treated and untreated oil and the diameter of these droplets in average are the significant values for an atomization support ability.

The light fuel was preheated to 50C and the timing gradually decreased from 1/100 of a second always another 1/100 second until a value of 1/1000 of a second was reached. The treatment concentration by Ivesco's (Cataphore), 1 part of Cataphore to 10000 parts of fuel.

The heavy fuel was preheated to 80C and the same timings were set. This was repeated 3 times with treated and untreated oil. The results show as follows, using a treatment concentration by Ivesco's (Cataphore) 1 part of cataphore to 10000 parts of fuel.

LIGHT FUEL
TIMING SEC. LIGHT FUEL UNTREATED
NO. OF DROPLETS
LIGHT FUEL TREATED
NO. OF DROPLETS
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Total Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Total
1/100 2800 2715 2970 8485 8530 9360 8160 26050
200 2410 2470 3010 7890 7180 6680 7430 23270
300 2100 2070 2350 6520 6700 6680 5943 20810
400 1630 1815 1720 5165 6700 7150 6840 20690
500 1315 1420 1514 4249 6400 6190 6620 19210
600 1208 1060 1330 3590 6115 6230 6150 18495
700 1070 1130 1050 3250 5810 5630 5960 17400
800 930 1060 1020 3010 5270 5030 4850 15150
900 800 740 780 2320 3960 3630 3650 11240
1000 610 580 710 1940 3050 3315 3160 9525
Total 46419 Total 181840

3. Summary for Light Fuel

Atomization improved according to relating numbers of droplets in evenly timed tests in the average for a fuel of 200 sec/Redwood 1 at 50C.

181840 / 46419 = 3.9

The equal amount of fuel injected will show a 3.9 times finer droplet pattern 3.9 times more droplets containing the same amount of fuel.

HEAVY FUEL
TIMING SEC. LIGHT FUEL UNTREATED
NO. OF DROPLETS
LIGHT FUEL TREATED
NO. OF DROPLETS
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Total Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Total
1/100 760 780 730 2270 4860 4620 4715 14195
200 650 640 610 1900 4210 3830 4220 12260
300 590 590 515 1695 3600 3415 3350 10365
400 430 400 410 1240 3490 3510 3560 10560
500 380 350 370 1100 2970 2760 2860 8590
600 290 280 260 830 2100 1940 1740 5780
700 180 210 210 600 1770 1840 1630 5240
800 90 110 80 280 1260 1350 1270 3880
900 60 120 110 290 830 910 860 2600
1000 70 110 90 270 515 470 460 1445
Total 10475 Total 74915

4. Summary for Heavy Fuel

Atomization improved according to relating numbers of droplets in evenly timed tests, in the average for a fuel 1500 sec/Redwood 1 at 80C

74915 / 10475 = 7.2

The equal amount of fuel injected will show after treatment under equal conditions as for untreated, an increase in the number of droplets average 7.2 times finer atomization.

5. Summary

By the use of Ivesco's (Cataphore) for treatment of different types of fuel the atomization of fuel in the combustion chamber is substantially improved. Formation of smaller droplets makes these more equal sized. Readings were obtained by counting droplets per cm2 of a total screen area of 25 cm2.

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